Thursday, 12 December 2013


The Age of Enlightenment
  • Process of rationality and reason
  • Enlightenment - period in the 18th C when scientific philosophical thinking made leaps and bounds
  • Secularisation - reason rather than Metaphysics
  • Belief in an unified scientific method
  • Positivism

C.P Snow

  • The two cultures and the scientific revolution - 1959
  • The arts & the sciences were two different agendas - could never fuse together


  • Positive outcome - definite outcome - it does something
  • Facts
  • Separation of facts from value (value freedom)
  • Measurement rather than argument
  • The facts speak for themselves
  • Causation
  • Separation and control of variables
  • Rigorous methods
Approaches to research
  • Empiricism - scientific research - setting up an experiment & observing
  • Quantitative research - numbers, charts
  • Qualitative research - opposite side to quantitative - interviews etc
  • Subjectivism
Action research
  • Academic way of planning out & carrying out research - actively taking part
  • Cycle - Researcher enters - Real world takes part in - action in the situation enables - reflection on the involvement leads to - findings/beginning of cycle
Cycle of Synthesis
  • Unification of doing
  • Theory, Action, Reflection
  • Method - A way of proceeding about something in systematic or logical manner
  • Methodology - The science of method, employed in a particular activity
  • Some methodologies: Historical, communication, theory etc.
  • Ways of thinking about thinking
  • Ways of thinking, and selecting between different approaches to a subject - knowing the routes and their outcomes & choosing one in particular because of this
The Hermeneutic Circle
  • First grasp - inspection of detail - global inspection - deeper understanding
  • Constant refinement
  • Developed by Heidegger
  • Interpretation is a process designed to clarify an experience and assign meaning to it
  • This is aided by the hermeneutic circle which involves looking at different perspectives on events and relating individual components
  • Ricoeur - anything in the world can be interpreted in three different levels - behind the text, in/through the text & in front of the text

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